BOSTON - June 16, 2016 - P&E Microcomputer Systems, Inc. today announced the ability to add usage restrictions to programming images created for the Cyclone FX stand alone programmer. These usage restrictions include the ability to limit programming to a specific date range and also to set a maximum number of programming operations which can occur. The effect of this is that the user can limit the duration and amount of programming allowed by an image. This can be useful for protecting the IP contained within a programming image as well as making sure that programming images in production are not too far out of date. These restrictions persist even when the images are deleted/restored on a Cyclone unit's internal memory or SD card. Images are encoded in such a way as to deter tampering.
Image restrictions are set in the Cyclone Configuration Utility
The Cyclone FX programmer is a stand-alone in-circuit programmer which supports many NXP and ARM Cortex based devices. Cyclone FX owners who wish to update their Cyclones can download the latest software and firmware from P&E's website.
Programming count displayed on the Cyclone FX home screen
The Automated Control Package features a Windows dynamic link library (DLL), command-line script application, and supporting documentation making it simple to create custom software applications that directly control Cyclone units. It also enables users to control multiple Cyclones with a single PC, modify stored images, manage multiple images, and program non-sequential dynamic data such as serial numbers. Example projects are provided in several popular development languages.
The Cyclone Automated Control Package is available in Professional and Enterprise versions to suit both small and large production scales. The Enterprise edition includes documentation describing the RS-232 and Ethernet protocols. A Basic version is available for no cost.
BOSTON – March 15, 2016 - P&E Microcomputer Systems is now shipping the Cyclone Universal FX, which is the flagship model of P&E's next-generation Cyclone programmers. P&E's Cyclones have set the standard for powerful, versatile production programming and debug. The Cyclone Universal FX was designed to offer the very best of the Cyclone platform with a focus on enhanced security, extremely fast performance, test, and expandability.
The Cyclone Universal FX combines support for many NXP 8-/16-/32-bit architectures with support for ARM® Cortex® devices from many different manufacturers. P&E has maintained compatibility with their existing product line while combining support for all of these target architectures into a single unit.
Cyclone Universal FX Features:
(Features in bold are key differentiators between the Cyclone Universal and Cyclone Universal FX
BOSTON – February 4, 2016 - P&E is pleased to announce that support has been added to its products for files using version 3 and version 4 of the ELF/DWARF format. This is in addition to existing support for ELF/DWARF version 2 and includes both debug and object information handling. Support for 64-bit objects and structures within the ELF/DWARF files has also been added.
Support for these additional file formats is available today in P&E's debug, flash programming, and test products.
BOSTON, MA – July 14, 2015 - Following their debut at the 2015 Freescale Technology Forum, P&E's soon-to-be-released Cyclone Universal and Cyclone Universal FX are now available to pre-order. Production quantitites of both new Cyclone programmers are expected to ship by Sept. 15 (subject to change). Those interested in placing a pre-order or simply reviewing the features of our next-generation production programming, test, and debug interfaces may do so at the Cyclones' P&E product page. These new Cyclones each support many architectures and offer impressive feature sets that may include:
Large internal memory: 1GB+ secure memory storage.
Focus on security: Internal memory protection & encryption, anti-tampering technology, tie images to specific Cyclones, programming count limits, date range limits, logging, etc.
AUSTIN, TX – June 22, 2015 - P&E's Cyclones have set the standard for powerful, versatile production programming and debug. We have completely redesigned the Cyclone Platform with state of the art, high-speed technology. We have maintained compatibility with our existing product line while combining support for many target architectures in a single unit and focusing on outstanding security, performance, and features.
Join us at the Freescale® Technology Forum (FTF) in Austin, June 22-25. Come visit us at booth #617 for a chance to win one of two Cyclone Universal FX units, once they are released!
In addition to supporting more target architectures, these new Cyclones offer several improvements over their predecessors:
Large internal memory: 1GB+ secure memory storage.
Focus on security: Internal memory protection & encryption, anti-tampering technology, tie images to specific Cyclones, programming count limits, date range limits, logging, etc.
BOSTON – October 31, 2014 - P&E Microcomputer Systems has released Rev. C of it's popular, all-in-one USB Multilink Universal interface. The case color of the Rev. C interface has been updated from green to blue, however the functionality of the Multilink Universal remains the same.
Users should note that if they are using software purchased before September 2014 with the Multilink Universal Rev. C, they may need to update firmware manually when changing architectures. Information on software updates is available by contacting P&E.
P&E continues to expand on its line of all-in-one interfaces with the launch of the high-speed USB Multilink Universal FX. Like P&E's original all-in-one interface, the USB Multilink Universal, the new USB Multilink Universal FX supports a varirety of Freescale MCUs, including: Kinetis, Qorivva 55xx/56xx, ColdFire V1/ColdFire+ V1, ColdFire V2-4, HC(S)12(X), HCS08, RS08, Power Architecture PX Series, and DSC. However the new FX interface can download at speeds up to 10x faster and can provide power to the target processor, among other enhancements.
The new USB Multilink Universal FX is natively supported by recent versions of CodeWarrior®, current P&E software applications, and toolchains from many Freescale partners including Keil and Cosmic.
More information about the USB Multilink Universal FX is available on the product page at P&E's website.
P&E has released its groundbreaking new USB Multilink Universal all-in-one interface. The USB Multilink Universal is an economical, reliable USB-to-target interface that uses multiple headers to support Freescale's HCS08, RS08, HC(S)12(X), ColdFire V1/+V1 & V2-4, Qorivva MPC55xx/56xx, and Kinetis ARM microcontrollers. The USB Multilink Universal includes multiple ribbon cables to allow connections to the various supported devices. The USB Multilink Universal's case simply flips open for easy access to the headers.
It is supported by P&E software, in addition to Freescale's Codewarrior and software from other third party vendors. A configuration utility is available on P&E's website which allows configuration of the USB Multilink Universal for use with older software packages.
P&E is also developing the USB Multilink Universal FX, an enhanced, high-speed version of the USB Multilink Universal interface.
This video provides a brief comparison of the features of two popular P&E hardware interfaces, the USB BDM Multilink and the Cyclone PRO. This overview is intended to help users determine which interface is best suited for their project. More information about each interface can be found on the USB-ML-12 and Cyclone PRO product pages.
P&E is pleased to announce that 64-bit Windows support has arrived, including support for Windows 7. P&E software has been upgraded to work under Windows 7 (and other Windows 64-bit operating systems) by using the latest version of our drivers - P&E Hardware Interface Drivers 10. There is no need to worry about P&E software compatibility if you're migrating to a Windows 64-bit OS at home or in the office.
P&E is committed to ensuring a smooth transition to these newer operating sytems for our customers. Customers who have purchased P&E software within the last 12 months can contact us for a free ugprade. Customers who have purchased software between 12 and 24 months ago are eligible to upgrade by purchasing the latest version of the software at a 50% discount from the full price.
Unfortunately, due to OS and hardware driver limitations, P&E legacy products such as USB-ML-12 Rev. A, USB-ML-CF Rev A, the BDM Lightning Card and also parallel port versions of our programmers are not supported under Windows 7 and 64-bit systems. However, we are committed to supporting these products under 32-bit operating systems such as Windows 98/2000/XP/Vista by continuing to offer Version 9 of our P&E Hardware Interface Drivers. These can be downloaded from the Documentation and Downloads section of P&E's website, or directly at the following link:
We're pleased to announce the release of our latest device drivers. This update includes support for Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7 Operating Systems for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, as well as some minor bug fixes.
Run the file drivers_10_install.exe. If you have an older version of our drivers installed, the setup will automatically perform the update.
NOTE: The latest drivers no longer include support for Windows 98 and ME, but P&E will continue to make our older drivers available. Support for PCI devices (e.g., BDM Lightning) and Parallel port devices has been removed for Windows Vista and later, as well as all 64-bit operating systems.
P&E drivers allow P&E applications to communicate with P&E hardware via the parallel port, PCI bus, Ethernet, Serial, and USB.
This video gives a demonstration of how to load a programming image onto a
CompactFlash card in the expansion port of P&E's Cyclone products.
CompactFlash activation is a powerful feature that lets users expand
the memory and versatility of their Cyclone:
P&E’s Cyclone PRO/MAX Stand Alone Programmers offer an impressive array of capabilities such as in-circuit flash programming, stand-alone programming, and as much as 7MB internal non-volatile memory for storing programming images. And now this memory space can be expanded via optional software which enables the Cyclones’ CompactFlash interface. The expanded storage feature simplifies management of Stand-Alone Programming images. This Expert’s Corner explains how to take advantage of the CompactFlash card feature to facilitate the Stand-Alone Programming process.
One of the key features of the Cyclone PRO/MAX Stand-Alone Programmers is the ability to store all necessary programming information - binary data, algorithm information, and programming settings – in the Cyclone’s internal memory, in a format known as the Stand-Alone Programming (SAP) Image. This allows programming operations to be initiated by pushing a single button.
There are currently two methods that can be used to load a SAP image onto a Cyclone. If only a single image is necessary for production, that image can be stored directly on the Cyclone using the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility”.If several images are necessary for production, the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” can first be used to create all the SAP images, and then the “Cyclone Image Manager” can be used to load all the images simultaneously into the cyclone.
These methods are useful for updating small SAP images stored internally, or when the unit is easily accessible from a host PC. However, the procedure becomes a bit more involved if the Cyclone unit is not easily accessible. If the unit is at a different manufacturing plant, for example, or overseas, the user would have to obtain the Cyclone, update the images, and then send it back to its original location. However, with the addition of CompactFlash support this process becomes a matter of simply removing a CompactFlash card with one set of images and plugging in another with the new set, thereby reducing the need for an additional PC and engineering support. This makes it very easy to reconfigure images in the field.
In addition, activation of the Cyclone’s CompactFlash capability provides support for images which are larger than the internal memory storage space. A firmware image of 16 MB intended for programming into a hybrid engine controller, for example, can now easily be stored on a CompactFlash card.
The following sections demonstrate how to use the CompactFlash feature. We will create a SAP image example and then store it on a CompactFlash card in a Cyclone MAX, Rev. B.
First we create a SAP image using the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” and save the SAP image on the PC.Then we transfer the image onto the Cyclone’s CompactFlash card. In the screenshot below, the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” is configured for Freescale Power Architecture 5534 with a typical programming sequence:
Additional settings for the SAP image may need to be configured depending on the architecture. For the Power Architecture there are three other settings to configure, which are as follows:
1. BDM Shift Frequency: 5, which corresponds to a communication frequency of 2.2 MHz. This clock cannot typically exceed a 1/6th of the processor bus frequency. 2. Reset Delay: 0. The reset delay section allows the user to set a delay before attempting communication. It is generally used if a reset driver exists on the target board which further asserts reset for a longer delay. In this example we will use a reset delay of zero. 3. Image Description: Field_Upgrade_Hybrid_3.49. The field for “Image Description” is used for naming each image that is created.
After verifying that the programming settings are correct, use the “Store Image to Disk” button to save the image on the PC. Then load the image into the CompactFlash card by using the “Cyclone Image Manager Utility”.
In this example, the SAP image is saved on the Desktop:
3. Using CompactFlash – Inserting a CompactFlash Card
Insert the CompactFlash card into the “Flash Expansion Port” on the Cyclone Max Rev. B. It is not necessary to power off the Cyclone Max Rev. B before inserting the CompactFlash Card.
Upon insertion of a blank CompactFlash card the Cyclone prompts the user to format the card for use with the Cyclone device. The user should use only a P&E branded CompactFlash card to guarantee proper operation.
4. Using CompactFlash – Storing an Image into CompactFlash
If the Cyclone’s CompactFlash capabilities have been activated, the “Cyclone Image Manager” will display a section that can be used to manage images stored on the CompactFlash. The new Cyclone Image Manager software is sold separately and must be registered before use. Below is a screenshot which shows the “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” section activated:
In this example, the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B is named “Persepolis” and has an IP address of “22.214.171.124” with two SAP images already stored in its internal memory.
The section labeled “Browse & Add Images to Internal Memory” has been updated so that SAP images stored in internal memory will be displayed with a prefix of “IN#:” The prefixes are automatically added after a SAP image is stored. The functionality of the buttons, “Remove All”, “Remove”, and “Add”, remain the same as before. “Remove All” will remove all the images from the internal memory. “Remove” and “Add” are used to configure a list of images to be stored in the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B internal memory. A screenshot of this section appears below:
To store a SAP image on the CompactFlash, click on the “Add” button
under the second section, “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash”.
In this example, the SAP image “Field_Upgrade_Hybrid_349.SAP” created in Section 2 is selected. After selecting the correct SAP image, click open. The SAP image should now be listed in the “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” section. Shown below is a screenshot of “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” before committing changes. The prefix “EX#” is added before the file name to designate it as CompactFlash external memory.
After verifying that the correct SAP image has been added to the list, click on “Commit Changes” to store the image into the CompactFlash card. Shown below is a screenshot of “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” after committing changes. Note that the image is now listed on the left.
Several SAP images can also be added at the same time. In the screenshot below, two extra SAP Images have been added to the CompactFlash card.
Now that the SAP images have been added to the Cyclone’s CompactFlash card, we can use LCD screen and interface buttons on the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B to select which image to use for stand-alone programming. The next section discusses the steps needed for selecting a SAP image.
If you wish you may watch this brief video demonstrating how to load a programming image onto the CompactFlash.
5. Using CompactFlash – Selecting an Image on the LCD screen
After storing the SAP images into the internal memory and CompactFlash, the status window displayed on the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B appears as below:
To change the selected SAP image press the “Menu/Select” button, which brings up the main menu:
Then press the “Menu/Select” button again when “Select SAP Image” is highlighted.
This will bring up a list of available SAP images. As mentioned previously, the prefix “IN#:” indicates that an Image is stored in internal memory and the prefix “EX#:” identifies that an Image that is stored in CompactFlash. Scroll until the desired image is highlighted and then press “Select”.
Once the SAP image is selected, its name will be displayed in the status window:
For added data security, information can only be written to the CompactFlash through the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B and Cyclone PRO, Rev. C, and datasets cannot be extracted from the CompactFlash once they have been written.
With the new CompactFlash card feature, P&E’s Cyclone PRO and Cyclone MAX Stand-Alone Programmers are no longer constrained by a limit of eight SAP images in the internal memory. Furthermore, updating a SAP image at an off-site production facility or on the field is now as easy as sending a CompactFlash with the new SAP Image. Archiving each new version of an image becomes easier by storing each new image on a separate CompactFlash Card.
P&E engineer Edison Tam demonstrates how to program
Freescale's QE128 with P&E's Cyclone PRO stand-alone automated
programmer, and gives an overview of the development and production
capabilities of the Cyclone PRO. To learn more, please visit the Cyclone PRO product page:
P&E's flash programming software PROG12Z now supports the Freescale MC9S12XE family of microcontrollers.
The MC9S12XE family of microcontrollers comes with unique flash
memory called D-Flash that can be allocated for Emulated EEPROM (EEE)
which mimics the small sector size and endurance of real eeprom. Before
you can program the D-Flash or EEE, the D-Flash must be configured with
the "Full Partition" command PROG12Z. This article discusses
how to program the D-Flash of MC9S12XE100 using PROG12Z. The P-Flash does not support the allocation of EEE and therefore does not require partitioning.
The size of the D-Flash on the MC9S12XE can be up to 32KB or 128
sectors of 256 bytes each. You can allocate up to 4KB or 16 pages of
256 bytes each to be used for EEE. Please see Freescale application
note AN3490 for a more detailed overview of the EEE implementation.
There are two parameters that control how the software
configures the memory: DFPART and ERPART.
DFPART = Number of D-Flash sectors reserved as User D-flash (128 total)
ERPART = Number of pages reserved for EEE (16 total)
The two parameters are required to meet two size conditions to be valid:
1. (128-DFPART) / ERPART >= 8
2. (128-DFPART) >= 12 if ERPART==1
The following table shows how the flash memory can be allocated
towards D-Flash and EEE. The arrows indicate that any number in that
range is a valid amount of sectors for D-Flash. DFPART and ERPART are
in hexadecimal notation.
Open Prog12z and connect to the target board. After entering
background mode, the software will prompt you for an
algorithm. There are two seperate algorithms for D-Flash and EEE. The
D-Flash algorithm is
EEE algorithm is "Freescale_9S12XEP100_1x16xmax2k_max4K_EEPROM_linear_1k_page.12P".
Lets choose the algorithm for D-Flash. After selecting your S19 file and before programming, execute the Full
Partition (FP) command. The software will prompt you to enter a value in hexadecimal that is the combination of DFPART and ERPART parameters.
"8000" - Enables 128 sectors (32 KB) of D-Flash and 0 pages of EEE
"200C" - Enables 32 sectors (8 KB) of D-Flash and 12 pages (3 KB) of EEE
"100C" - Enables 16 sectors (4 KB) of D-Flash and 12 pages (3 KB) of EEE
"0010" - Enables 0 sectors of D-Flash and 16 pages (4 KB) of EEE
When you want to program the EEE, you should choose the algorithm for EEE. You do not need to run the Full Partition command again unless you want to change the memory configuration. Note that setting up the memory configuration using the FP
command will erase all the contents of both D-Flash and EEE. If you
get the error message "Started. Error during .12P specified function.",
you have entered an invalid value.
The D-Flash begins at 0x100000. If all your memory is allocated towards D-Flash only, execute the Upload Module (UM) command to dump the memory to a S19 file. UM reads the entire flash regardless of how it was partitioned. If there is D-Flash and EEE, execute the Upload Range (UR) command instead. For example, if there is 8 KB of D-Flash, then upload the range 0x100000 to 0x101FFF.
P&E’s PROG programming software will sometimes prompt the user to enter a “Base Address”. In this article, we discuss what the base address is and why it exists.
On most 8-bit and 16-bit processors, the internal flash/eeprom is located at fixed address locations. If this is the case, the associated programming algorithm will NOT prompt the user for a base address, since the address is fixed and already known.
On 32-bit processors and any systems using external flash, the address of the flash may be configured to reside anywhere within the processor’s address space. The developer will decide on an appropriate memory map early in the design process.
For these situations where the flash can be relocated, the PROG software will always move the flash so that it begins at address 0. However, the developer may not have an object file that matches this new memory mapping. To account for this, the “Base Address” (specified by the user) is subtracted from all addresses in the object file prior to programming.
Below is an example of how the developer’s memory map may differ from the one in PROG. Although the external flash is located at different addresses, it refers to the same physical memory. Here, the user would specify a base address of FFC00000.
The base address should always be the starting address of flash in the developer’s memory map, and not the “first” address where data exists (although in most cases they are the same!)
Today's tip concerns P&E's Cyclone automated programmers. With the release of the Cyclone Automated Control Package,
users have been inquiring if there is a way to automate the creation of stand-alone
images. Fortunately, with the standard Cyclone
PRO/MAX installations, users already have command-line executables that
can accomplish this task.
For each architecture there is a corresponding CSAPXXXX.EXE application that can be used to create a stand-alone image file. For example, to create an image for the Coldfire V2/V3/V4 devices, the user would use CSAPBDMCFZ.EXE. For this blog, we will demonstrate how to create a stand-alone image for a 9S08QE128 device by using CSAPHCS08Z.EXE.
Begin by creating a stand-alone configuration file. You can create a configuration file by configuring the programming sequence in the Cyclone Image Creation Utility and then saving it thorugh File ->Save Cyclone Configuration. You can also create a configuration file by using a text editor, typing in the commands, and saving it as a .CFG file. A typical configuration file might use the following sequence:
CM C:pemicrocyclone_proAlgorithmsHCS089S08QE128.S8P SS C: esthcs089S08QE128.S19 EM ;Erase Module BM ;Blank Check Module PT ;Program Trim PM ;Program Module VM ;Verify Module VC ;Verify Checksum
In this example, we will save the .CFG file as "9S08QE128.CFG" in c:. With the configuration file created, we can now create a stand-alone image or .SAP file by using the command prompt. In the command prompt, we can invoke the configuration script file as follows:
The first parameter, "c:9S08QE128.cfg", specifies the location of the input configuration file.
The second parameter, imagefile "c:9s08qe128.sap", specifies the name and output location of the .SAP file.
The last parameter, imagecontent "9S08QE128_1_26_2009", specifies the image description.
You can use the '?' character option to cause the utility to wait and
display the result of the configuration in the CSAP window. You can also use the '!' character option to cause the utility to wat and display the result only if the file
failed to generate.
After invoking the configuration script in the command prompt, the file 9S08qe128.sap is generated in the C: directory. The 9s08qe128.sap file can now be loaded into the Cyclone PRO/MAX by using the Cyclone Automated Control Package or the Cyclone Manage Images Utility.
P&E's Cyclone PRO makes it very simple to program both the Flash
and EEPROM on your HC(S)12(X) device. There is a
unique algorithm for each device and the type of memory, so the first
step is to determine the correct algorithm for your setup. A list of
all of our algorithms is located here. If you need help indentifying the correct algorithm, please refer to our previous post, Choosing The Right Programming Algorithm.
The following is a demonstration of how to program the 9S12DP256B microcontroller with P&E's Cyclone PRO, first in Interactive and then in Stand-Alone mode.
The 9S12DP256B has 4KB of EEPROM and 256KB (4 blocks of 64KB) Flash, so the algorithm files that you are need are:
You can place your code for EEPROM and Flash in seperate S-Record files or combine it into one. The P&E programming software will ignore any addresses in the S-Record that are out of memory range. Note that Freescale's Codewarrior Develoopment Kit automatically
outputs an S-Record file and PHY file that contain both the Flash and
EEPROM code. You can load the PHY file directly with either algorithm
When using the Cyclone PRO in Interactive Mode, open up the CyclonePro_PROG12Z Flash programming software and connect to the target board.
1. Load Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x2k_4k_EEPROM.12P with the "CM" command. 2. Specify S-record that you want to program with the "SS" command. 3. Erase the EEPROM with the "EM" command.4. Program the EEPROM with the "PM" command5. Verify the EEPROM with the "VM" command 6. Load Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x128k_256k_Linear_16k_page.12P with the "CM" command 7. Erase the Flash with the "EM" command.8. Program the Flash with the "PM" command9. Verify the Flash with the "VM" command
If you're using the Cyclone in Stand-Alone mode you'll need to configure the following programming sequence in the Cyclone PRO Image Creation Utility. If you don't have this utility, you can download the software here.
CM Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x2k_4k_EEPROM.12P SS DP256.PHY EMPMVMCM Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x128k_256k_Linear_16k_page.12PEMPMVM
P&E’s product line of Cyclone stand-alone
provides a fast, robust, and automated solution for production-scale
programming of microprocessors. However, production facilities may
even higher level of automation than the single-button touch capability
offered by the Cyclone. P&E offers several means of automating
control, including a command-line executable, UDP/Serial
communications, or the .DLL included in P&E's new Cyclone Automated
Control Software Package. In this article, we discuss automated control
using the automated control package and the unprecedented level of
power and flexibility that
1.) Introduction – Controlling a Cyclone through the PC
P&E’s new Cyclone Automated Control Package provides
the developer with a dynamic link library (DLL) and supporting documentation to
allow custom software applications to directly control the Cyclone.
By storing the binary data information, algorithm
information, and settings directly into the FLASH memory of the Cyclone,
programming operations can be initiated by the simple push of a button.
However, the DLL enables us to use the PC to issue a command to the Cyclone to
start the same programming sequence!
The use of a PC to control the Cyclone enhances the
functionality of the stand-alone programming operations, but also introduces
new capabilities that were not available previously. In the following sections,
we explore the features of the Cyclone Automated Control Package and present
practical examples of how to use it in your own production line.
2.) Setup – Image Creation
The first step is always to create the actual stand-alone
images that will be stored onto the Cyclone. These images contain the algorithm
needed to program FLASH / EEPROM, the actual binary data to be programmed, the
sequence of programming operations, and many user-specified Cyclone settings.
P&E’s “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” allows the user to properly
configure the stand-alone images.
Above is a screenshot of the dialog in the Cyclone Image
Creation Utility which allows the user to configure the stand-alone image. The
field on the right shows the programming steps and also the order in which
these steps execute.
1.)First, we select the appropriate algorithm for our
processor. In this example, we are using the Freescale
2.)Next, we specify the target object file that represents
the binary data to be programmed into the processor’s FLASH memory. Here, we are
using a Motorola S-record file.
3.)Once the algorithm and the target object file are
specified, we are ready to begin programming. Typically, the procedure is to
erase the device to make sure it’s blank, program the target, and verify that
the contents were written correctly.
In addition to the programming sequence, there are also
settings for the Cyclone that we can configure. In the above screenshot, we are
using the Cyclone PRO’s power relays to provide the appropriate voltage to power
up our processor. This way, we do not need a separate power supply for our
target board, simplifying our production line.
Finally, we specify the Image Description so that we can
easily identify the image later on. By using the “Store Image to Disk” option,
we are able to save this image and its configuration as a .SAP file for future
3.) Using the DLL – Simple Example
The above code example shows the most basic operation that
is supported by the Cyclone Automated Control Package. Below are the steps we have
Step 1: Contact the desired Cyclone by specifying its
IP address. The handle of the Cyclone is returned, and is used to identify the
Cyclone in all subsequent function calls.
Step 2: Send a command to the Cyclone to begin the
programming operations specified in image #1. These operations were specified
during the image creation process.
Step 3: Wait for the Cyclone to complete the
programming operations before proceeding.
Step 4: Check to see if any errors occurred during
programming and provide a message to the user.
Step 5: Terminate the current session with the
4.) Using the DLL – More Advanced Operations
Programming a serial number
Note: The following are placeholder functions used to
simplify the example, and are not provided by the automated control package:
The above example code is an event handler written for a
visual MFC application, which is executed each time a button is pressed by the
user. Here, we again instruct the Cyclone to perform the stand-alone
programming operations of the image stored on the Cyclone. Afterwards, we
program a dynamic 2-byte serial number into address 0x100 of the target
processor. The serial number is then incremented and written back to a file for
Although there are many different ways to program a serial
number without needing to use the automated control package at all, this code example can easily be
modified to program dynamic data that is not sequential. For example, if we
wish to program the current date or a lot number, using the automated control package and writing
your own custom application is by far the easiest and most automated way to
accomplish this task.
Automatically update image stored on the Cyclone
This is a very simple example of how to ensure that the
image stored on a Cyclone is always up to date. A comparison is performed
between the image which currently resides on the Cyclone and an image file at a
specified location on the host PC. If there is a mismatch, then we update the
image. Afterwards, we proceed with the normal programming operations as seen in
the previous examples.
5.) Can I Control Multiple Cyclones?
Up until now, we have discussed some uses of the
Cyclone Automated Control Package with a single Cyclone unit. Since the host PC only
sends minimal control information to control each Cyclone, a single PC is
actually capable of controlling many Cyclone units simultaneously.
Here, we begin programming operations on 3 separate Cyclone
units and wait for their completion before proceeding. In essence, we are
programming 3 separate devices in parallel. This can be easily extended to 10,
100, or even 1000 Cyclone units controlled in parallel from a single host PC!
6.) More Examples
Here are a few more real world examples:
·Quality Control : automatically
record statistics on the number of devices that fail during programming.
·You’re a developer and just completed the
firmware development for a brand new product. Now you need to get your
production facility up to speed, but they are halfway across the country.
Streamline this process by writing a simple application that will add a new
image to the Cyclone. Send this along with the new stand-alone image SAP file
and you’re done.
·You use multiple Cyclone units for programming
your devices in parallel. Each Cyclone has 4 different images, one for each of
your 4 different products. Write an application that allows the user to
automatically select the correct image for the current production run.
Whether you are performing small production runs in-house or
programming a large number of chips in a high-volume facility, P&E’s
Cyclone product family provides a powerful, yet affordable, solution. With the
advanced parallel programming, image management, and error tracking features
provided by P&E’s new Cyclone Automated Control Package, you now have the power to
completely automate your production programming process like never before.
Did you ever wonder how to power cycle your device to force it into
Background Debug Mode? Are you trying to eliminate an external
power supply from your manufacturing setup? You can accomplish either task by using
a Cyclone PRO. Using the Cyclone PRO's internal power generation mechanism, you can control power for any HC08/HCS08/RS08/HC(S)12 device.
In fact, controlling the power through a Cyclone PRO is crucial for
HCS08/RS08 device applications which may not have a dedicated RESET
pin. This is because power cycling the device is necessary in order to fully automate the
FLASH programming procedure.
To configure a Cyclone PRO to provide power to pin 6 of the BDM
header, set power jumpers 2, 3 and 4 on the side of the Cyclone unit. To
provide power to pin 15 of the 16-pin MON08 header,
set power jumpers 1, 2 and 3. Once the power jumpers are set,
select "Provide Power to Target" from the Connection Assistant and/or
Cyclone Image Creation Utility and the Cyclone PRO will take care of
the rest. You can choose between 5V, 3V and 2V levels.
Cyclone PRO is also able to toggle power for most high-power/high-voltage devices. The internal electromechanical relays can handle power supplies with a maximum switched current of 1A and a maximum switched
voltage of up to 30VDC. In order to automate power cycling with an
external power supply, insert it into the Cyclone's "Target Power In" jack. Use the power cord that's included in the Cyclone PRO kit to
connect the output of the Cyclone's "Target Power Out" jack to the power input of your
board. Then be sure to set power jumper 5 on the side of the Cyclone unit, leaving jumpers 1, 2, 3 and 4
Did you know you can safeguard data while erasing your Flash/EEPROM module during programming? P&E has added a “preserve range” function that can be used in a programming algorithm to preserve memory ranges. The function looks at the range to be preserved, saves it, and restores it after the Flash/EEPROM has been erased. The user can easily preserve code segments stored in flash with a couple of modifications to the header of the programming algorithm.
A flash programming algorithm is a text file which describes how a particular flash block is to be programmed. The algorithm contains a configuration section as well as some s-record data which implements the programming process. User's commonly will modify the configuration section to change the behavior of the programming algorithm, such as to add ranges of data to preserve.
Flash algorithms describe flash blocks as having either a fixed address (common for internal flash on a microcontroller) or a variable address (common for flash chips external to a microprocessor). Algorithms which do not have a fixed address for the flash will prompt the user for the base address of the flash at the time of programming. In either case, the algorithm can be used to specify ranges of flash to preserve relative to the start of the flash block.
For an algorithm with a fixed address for the flash block, the following line will indicate the flash block location:
NO_BASE_ADDRESS=NNNNNNNN/ ; NNNNNNNN is a Hexadecimal value indicating the start of flash
Do not modify the NO_BASE_ADDRESS line! You are simply going to add some lines after it which indicate that you wish to preserve certain ranges relative to the base address. The configuration line(s) you should add directly after the NO_BASE_ADDRESS line should have the following format (very strictly formatted - no spaces allowed and include all forward slashes):
PRESERVE_RANGE=SSSSSSSS/EEEEEEEE/ ; SSSSSSSS is the starting offset, EEEEEEEE is ending offset
Adding this line would preserve the following memory range : NNNNNNNN+SSSSSSSS to NNNNNNNN+EEEEEEEE.
If there was an algorithm which was designed to program a flash block with address range $4000-$FFFF, you would see the following configuration in the flash algorithm:
NO_BASE_ADDRESS=00004000/ ;Fixed at $4000 ADDR_RANGE=00000000/0000BFFF/00/FFFFFFC0/FFFFFE00/ ; $4000-$FFFF
Do not modify these lines! If you wanted to preserve a certain memory range, you would specify it after the line with the NO_BASE_ADDRESS command (which sets the base address) and before the lines with ADDR_RANGE. If you wanted to preserve the memory from address $F000-$F001, you would add the bolded line as follows:
Note that the preserve_range command requires the offset from the base address of your memory. If you add $4000 to $B000 and $B001, you have $F000 and $F001.
In addition, this functionality does not limit the user to preserving only 1 range or one address. The function can be called several times in the algorithm if several ranges and/or addresses need to be preserved, or if the Flash/EEPROM is segmented into several fields or extended into pages.
For the flash block above (from $4000 to $FFFF), if the user wished to preserve addresses $5001, $5006 and ranges $CCAA-$CCBB and $D123-$DFFF, the following segment would be added to the algorithm:
It is also possible to preserve several different segments across different pages of Flash/EEPROM. The user should know how to access each page of memory logically in the software. Let's look at the HCS08 AC128. The paged Flash memory can be accessed with the following ranges. This will typcially be described in the configuration section of the programming algorithm.
$08000-$0BFFF --> Page 0 $18000-$1BFFF --> Page 1 $28000-$2BFFF --> Page 2 $38000-$3BFFF --> Page 3 etc. If the user wanted to preserve memory on page 0 from $08000-$08005 and on page 3 from $38000-$38005, he would add the following commands :
Note again that the offset $20F0 is added to the parameters of the command to calculate the correct paged memory ranges to preserve. Add $20F0 to $5F10 to get $08000 and add $20F0 to $35F10 to get $38000.
The PROG software will report a checksum error and warn that the algorithm has been modified. This error can be ignored. If you wish to remove the warning, please use our command-line ADDCRC utility to update the checksum.
The Blank Check command will now fail because of the preserved data. Also note that the Verify Module command will ignore the addresses that are preserved when comparing memory against an S-record.
Any information which follows a semicolon (;) on a configuration line is a comment. P&E can provide more a detailed specification of flash algorithm construction upon request.
The HC(S)12(X) microcontroller family uses a paged flash architecture to expand its addressable memory beyond the standard 64KB (or $0000 to $FFFF). Microcontrollers with this feature treat a 16KB block of memory from $8000 to $BFFF as a memory window. This window allows multiple 16KB blocks to be switched into and out of program memory. An 8-bit program page register (PPAGE) tells the microcontroller which block to read.
The entire paged memory can be addressed in two different ways: logical or physical. Logical addresses are treated as segments of 16KB separated by 48KB. These segments (or pages) of memory occupy $8000 to $BFFF. In addition to the page window, there are two fixed 16KB blocks from $4000 to $7FFF and $C000 to $FFFF. These fixed locations are addressable in either range. For example, the last page of the MC9S12DP512 is $3F8000 to $3FBFFF or $C000 to $FFFF. Physical addresses treat the whole flash as one linear space in a 24-bit memory map. For example, the physical address space of the MC9S12DP512 is $080000 to $0FFFFF.
To program the flash with P&E's software, you need an S-record file that has physical addresses by definition. If you have a logical file, you can use the Log2Phy tool to convert it to an S-record. Select the microcontroller from the drop down box in Log2Phy. Then load the s-record and type in the name of the output file. Press the Convert button and the results of the conversion will appear in the box. The S-record file is saved to a file with the extension “.phy”. If there are unconverted logical addresses, they are saved to a file with the extension “.s19.extra”.
The Log2Phy tool now supports all S12, S12X, S12XE, and S12P devices.
This is a screen capture of the Log2Phy tool showing the conversion of a logical file for the MC9S12DP512 to an S-record:
This is the assembly source with sample code:
; Device = MC9S12DP512
org $8000 ;page 20 is the first page dw $8000 ;physical address $80000 org $BFFE dw $BFFE ;physical address $83FFE
P&E has added a new Chip Select Diagnostic mode to its interactive
flash programmers to allow the user to diagnose memory map configuration
P&E’s flash programmers support an extensive array of
external flash devices connected to the processor. P&E’s algorithms are designed to work by default when
the flash device is connected to the boot chip select and no modification is
needed to the reset configuration of the output enable and write enable lines. However, there are numerous ways in which the flash can be
connected that may require changes to the default reset configuration
of the processor’s chip select, write enable, and output enable operation.
When another configuration is used, the algorithm may
require some modification to work. This
often involves writing to the chip select registers to change which chip select
is used, to make certain chip selects read only or write only, or to change the
base address of the chip select. P&E’s algorithms expect the flash to be located at a
specific location in the memory map. This location is listed in the algorithm
itself as a comment. An example can be seen here:
This line indicates that the flash must be configured to be
in the memory map at address 0, and that the full range $00000000-$00800000
must be configured to address the flash. This is separate from the “Base
Address” capability in the programmer user interface which makes the flash
appear to be anywhere the user selects it (internally it physically resides at
a specific location).
On many devices the boot chip select is enabled everywhere.
If a configuration change is needed, there are many commands which allow the
registers on the device to be written during startup. The WRITE_LONG,
WRITE_WORD, and WRITE_BYTE commands are examples of commands which can be used
to write to memory mapped registers. There are also commands on some
architectures to allow the configuration of where the registers are located,
such as the CONTROL command on the ColdFire architecture. Here is an example of
initializing the CS1 chip select on a 5272 device instead of the default CS0
chip select (the boot chip select).
CONTROL=20000001/0C0F/ ;set mbar on with address $20000000
WRITE_LONG=00000078/2000004C/ ;proc=5272 cs=CS1 on
The question often comes up : How do I know my chip select
configuration is correct?
P&E has added a diagnostic tool to it’s interactive
flash programmers which allow the user to test the chip select configuration to
make sure the chip select, write enable, and output enable signals have been
properly configured. The utility may be chosen from the “ChipSelectsDiagnostic”
selection on the main menu bar. A portion of the utility is shown here:
The user will need a scope or a logic probe to see if the
signals maintain the proper state during the test read and test write functions.
Setting the chip select registers properly solves the majority of support
questions P&E receives regarding external flash algorithms.
P&E's Cyclone programmers are sophisticated and flexible tools designed for in-circuit flash programming. Field service updates, an important part of a field system, often occur in places where there is no access to a PC or power outlet. However, P&E's Cyclones are lightweight, compact programmers that have been designed to operate in stand-alone mode – i.e. they can be loaded with a programming image, detached from the PC, and then be controlled via the LCD menu and control buttons. This makes it simple to update the firmware of a field system, for example. In the field, the Cyclone unit may be powered by using a Cyclone_PowerPack, which is a lightweight and compact lithium ion battery. The combination of the Cyclone programmer and the battery pack creates a fully operational field programming setup that is lightweight, compact, and extremely portable.
All that is required for a field update is to connect the battery-powered, pre-programmed Cyclone to the target. Flash programming occurs directly from the Cyclone image to the target by a simple touch of the Start button. Once initiated, programming launches and the on-board LCD displays the current state of the programming process. The final result, which is displayed on the LCD screen and with highly visible LEDs, clearly indicates a successful programming result.
When it comes to production programming, a lot of times one or more serial numbers are required.
P&E has developed a utility called SERIALIZE, which allows the generation of a .SER serial number description file. This graphical utility
sets up a serial number which will increment according to the parameters set by
For P&E interactive programmers (PROGx software), the .SER files are stored on the PC and updated every time a serial number is programmed
to the target.
For Cyclone stand-alone operations, a
similar mechanism has been implemented, except that the serial number
structure is stored in the Cyclone's non-volatile internal FLASH memory. The .SER
file is used to obtain the initial serial number. Below we'll describe how a user
can take advantage of this feature in stand alone operations.
that a user only needs one serial number for his product, the following
sequence of operations can be specified when he creates the SAP image:
CM Corresponding programming algorithm for his product
SS Corresponding object file for his product
CS Corresponding .SER file for his product created using the Serialize utility
storing the image on the Cyclone, a user can simply press the "START"
button and watch the target be programmed with the serial number
specified in the .SER file. Another press of the "START" button will
program the target with the next serial number.
modules and multiple serial numbers can co-exist in one SAP image. The
following are example scripts of two programming algorithms and
three serial numbers:
CM Programming algorithm 1
SS Object file 1
CS .SER file 1
CM Programming algorithm 2
SS Object file 2
CS .SER file 2
CS .SER file 3
Once the SAP image is stored in a Cyclone, pressing the "START"
button will automatically carry out all the operations listed above in
sequence. Memory module 1 will contain the serial number specified
in the first .SER file. Memory module 2 will contain the serial
number specified in the second .SER file, and the serial number
specified by the third .SER file. Another press of the "START" button
will automatically program the next serial numbers in the target.
This serialize mechanism may even be used when a user
wants to program some static data to different locations without using
the "PB" or "PW" commands - the user can simply create a .SER file with all constants.
Please refer to this post for more information on the Serialization utility.
P&E offers a set of In-Circuit Debuggers that are packed with powerful scripting features. Whether you are stepping through a couple of lines of assembly code or debugging a C-level source, P&E's toolset can help you get the job done. P&E's In-Circuit Debuggers are designed with repeatable test and debugging procedures in mind. Therefore, the user can completely automate software tests by creating a macro script and saving the outcome in a log file. As a result, the user can avoid hours of repeatedly setting up software and firmware tests.
Here's a small demonstration of how the built in macro commands can be used to create and perform a repeatable firmware test on a 9S08AW60 processor. We'll be working with a simple assembly loop that's designed to toggle Port A every 20 CPU cycles. Please note that while the example below will be based on ICDHCS08 debugger, the same set of macro commands is present in all P&E debuggers. For a complete set of built-in macro features, please refer to the ICD COMMANDS section in the corresponding ICDxx.hlp file.
The macro outlined below will load our loop_example.s19 and .map files. At the same time it will set the program counter, set the breakpoints, and initialize variables. As the code executes, it will also capture the contents of the desired registers as well as the contents of all on-screen windows. All information will in turn be stored in a log file for later comparison and analysis:
; creates log file
; load an .s19 with a map file
; set program counter to point to the beginning of the
; add a variable to a variable window
; add a variable to a variable window
; run through initialization part of the code to the loop
; dump the contents of registers $00 to $01 into the log
; set a breakpoint at the beginning of the loop
; run the code until it hits a breakpoint
; captures the current data in all open windows and stores
; them in a log file.
; close log file
To execute the above macro, enter “macro” in the command line (located on the bottom of the ICD status window). Browse to the location where your macro is saved and open the file. Please note that any built-in commands can also be executed individually. This gives the user the opportunity to perform a step-by-step test of the macro prior to starting the automated debugging procedure.
, MA— P&E Microcomputer Systems continues its commitment to
programming automation and efficiency by announcing the release of an
Automated Control Software Development Kit (SDK) for the Cyclone family
SDK features a dynamic link library (DLL) and supporting documentation
which allow the user to create custom software applications that
directly control P&E’s Cyclone PRO and MAX units. It also enables
users to control multiple Cyclones with a single PC, modify stored
images, manage multiple images, and program non-sequential dynamic data
such as serial numbers.
Cyclone Automated Control SDK is available in Professional and
Enterprise versions to suit both small and large production scales. A
Basic version with limited features is available for download at no
More information is available on the P&E website on this link.
- P&E Microcomputer Systems now offers a rechargeable Power Pack
for use with the Cyclone PRO and Cyclone MAX stand-alone programmers.
When powered by a lithium ion long-runtime battery, a Cyclone unit is
the perfect solution for field firmware updates that require portable,
stand-alone programming. The Cyclone and PowerPack are lightweight,
compact, and extremely portable.
P&E has developed Linux-supported versions of many of our UNIT Library Interface Routines.
For several years, P&E Microcomputer Systems has offered the UNIT
SDK in order to allow users of P&E's hardware to create custom
applications for testing and other designs. With the addition of Linux
support for many of the UNIT products, P&E continues to expand the
range of users who can take advantage of these powerful tools.
UNIT Library Interface Routines for Linux are available for:
Power PC Nexus
For more information on UNIT software for Linux or Windows, please visit P&E's website.
Boston, Massachusetts— P&E Microcomputer
Systems announced the availability of two new USB Multilink interface
cables. The first is the USB-ML-PPCNEXUS, a JTAG/BDM interface for
Freescale MPC55xx devices. The second is the USB-ML-16/32, a BDM
interface for Freescale 68HC16/683xx devices. Both new interfaces
connect from the USB port of a Windows-based PC to the target. P&E
offers these new USB Multilink interfaces individually, or packaged
with software (debugger, programmer, IDE) as part of a development kit.