In addition to supporting the flash that resides in many different microcontrollers, PEmicro supports flash connected to an MCU via the SPI, I2C, and Address/Data bus interfaces. Depending on how the flash device is connected to the MCU, the programming algorithm may need to be set up to properly configure the external address, data, and bus control pins of the MCU. If you are not sure if you selected the right algorithm for your flash memory, please also read this blog post on selecting a flash algorithm.
In the case of flash memories connected to the address/data bus of an MCU, it can be difficult to understand when the chip select and/or other control pins are configured properly. Most often the issue is that the external flash memory Chip Enable (~CE), Output Enable (~OE), or Write Enable (WE) signals are not being driven properly. This blog post describes a way to look at these three signals to determine if they are being driven properly.
BOSTON – March 15, 2016 - PEmicro is now shipping the Cyclone Universal FX, which is the flagship model of PEmicro's next-generation Cyclone programmers. PEmicro's Cyclones have set the standard for powerful, versatile production programming and debug. The Cyclone Universal FX was designed to offer the very best of the Cyclone platform with a focus on enhanced security, extremely fast performance, test, and expandability.
The Cyclone Universal FX combines support for many NXP 8-/16-/32-bit architectures with support for ARM® Cortex® devices from many different manufacturers. PEmicro has maintained compatibility with their existing product line while combining support for all of these target architectures into a single unit.
Cyclone Universal FX Features:
(Features in bold are key differentiators between the Cyclone Universal and Cyclone Universal FX
BOSTON – February 4, 2016 - PEmicro is pleased to announce that support has been added to its products for files using version 3 and version 4 of the ELF/DWARF format. This is in addition to existing support for ELF/DWARF version 2 and includes both debug and object information handling. Support for 64-bit objects and structures within the ELF/DWARF files has also been added.
Support for these additional file formats is available today in PEmicro's debug, flash programming, and test products.
BOSTON – November 13, 2015 - PEmicro is now shipping the Cyclone Universal, which is the first of PEmicro's next-generation Cyclone programmers. PEmicro's Cyclones have set the standard for powerful, versatile production programming and debug. The Cyclone Universal was designed as the first in a next-generation Cyclone platform with a focus on security, performance, test, and expandability.
The Cyclone Universal combines support for many NXP/Freescale 8-/16-/32-bit architectures with support for ARM® Cortex® devices from many different manufacturers. PEmicro has maintained compatibility with their existing product line while combining support for all of these target architectures into a single unit.
BOSTON, MA – July 14, 2015 - Following their debut at the 2015 Freescale Technology Forum, PEmicro's soon-to-be-released Cyclone Universal and Cyclone Universal FX are now available to pre-order. Production quantitites of both new Cyclone programmers are expected to ship by Sept. 15 (subject to change). Those interested in placing a pre-order or simply reviewing the features of our next-generation production programming, test, and debug interfaces may do so at the Cyclones' PEmicro product page. These new Cyclones each support many architectures and offer impressive feature sets that may include:
Large internal memory: 1GB+ secure memory storage.
Focus on security: Internal memory protection & encryption, anti-tampering technology, tie images to specific Cyclones, programming count limits, date range limits, logging, etc.
AUSTIN, TX – June 22, 2015 - PEmicro's Cyclones have set the standard for powerful, versatile production programming and debug. We have completely redesigned the Cyclone Platform with state of the art, high-speed technology. We have maintained compatibility with our existing product line while combining support for many target architectures in a single unit and focusing on outstanding security, performance, and features.
Join us at the Freescale® Technology Forum (FTF) in Austin, June 22-25. Come visit us at booth #617 for a chance to win one of two Cyclone Universal FX units, once they are released!
In addition to supporting more target architectures, these new Cyclones offer several improvements over their predecessors:
Large internal memory: 1GB+ secure memory storage.
Focus on security: Internal memory protection & encryption, anti-tampering technology, tie images to specific Cyclones, programming count limits, date range limits, logging, etc.
BOSTON – October 31, 2014 - PEmicro has released Rev. C of it's popular, all-in-one USB Multilink Universal interface. The case color of the Rev. C interface has been updated from green to blue, however the functionality of the Multilink Universal remains the same.
Users should note that if they are using software purchased before September 2014 with the Multilink Universal Rev. C, they may need to update firmware manually when changing architectures. Information on software updates is available by contacting PEmicro.
P&E continues to expand on its line of all-in-one interfaces with the launch of the high-speed USB Multilink Universal FX. Like P&E's original all-in-one interface, the USB Multilink Universal, the new USB Multilink Universal FX supports a varirety of Freescale MCUs, including: Kinetis, Qorivva 55xx/56xx, ColdFire V1/ColdFire+ V1, ColdFire V2-4, HC(S)12(X), HCS08, RS08, Power Architecture PX Series, and DSC. However the new FX interface can download at speeds up to 10x faster and can provide power to the target processor, among other enhancements.
The new USB Multilink Universal FX is natively supported by recent versions of CodeWarrior®, current P&E software applications, and toolchains from many Freescale partners including Keil and Cosmic.
More information about the USB Multilink Universal FX is available on the product page at P&E's website.
presented its new USB Multilink Universal, an ALL-IN-ONE development interface, at the recent Freescale Momentum conference. The revolutionary ALL-IN-ONE interface concept
was very well received by conference attendees. USB Multilink Universal is a single interface that supports Freescale’s HCS08, RS08, HC(S)12(X), Coldfire V1/+V1/V2-V4, Qorivva
MPC55xx/56xx, and Kinetis ARM microcontrollers. Thus, it eliminates the need to
purchase different hardware interfaces to support specific devices that belong to those MCU families.
P&E also previewed two upcoming products: the USB Multilink
Universal FX and Tracelink. The USB Multilink Universal FX is an enhanced, very
high-speed version of the USB Multilink Universal. The Tracelink interface will support
trace capture for 32 bit Freescale device architectures.
This video provides a brief comparison of the features of two popular P&E hardware interfaces, the USB BDM Multilink and the Cyclone PRO. This overview is intended to help users determine which interface is best suited for their project. More information about each interface can be found on the USB-ML-12 and Cyclone PRO product pages.
P&E is pleased to announce that 64-bit Windows support has arrived, including support for Windows 7. P&E software has been upgraded to work under Windows 7 (and other Windows 64-bit operating systems) by using the latest version of our drivers - P&E Hardware Interface Drivers 10. There is no need to worry about P&E software compatibility if you're migrating to a Windows 64-bit OS at home or in the office.
P&E is committed to ensuring a smooth transition to these newer operating sytems for our customers. Customers who have purchased P&E software within the last 12 months can contact us for a free ugprade. Customers who have purchased software between 12 and 24 months ago are eligible to upgrade by purchasing the latest version of the software at a 50% discount from the full price.
Unfortunately, due to OS and hardware driver limitations, P&E legacy products such as USB-ML-12 Rev. A, USB-ML-CF Rev A, the BDM Lightning Card and also parallel port versions of our programmers are not supported under Windows 7 and 64-bit systems. However, we are committed to supporting these products under 32-bit operating systems such as Windows 98/2000/XP/Vista by continuing to offer Version 9 of our P&E Hardware Interface Drivers. These can be downloaded from the Documentation and Downloads section of P&E's website, or directly at the following link:
We're pleased to announce the release of our latest device drivers. This update includes support for Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7 Operating Systems for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, as well as some minor bug fixes.
Run the file drivers_10_install.exe. If you have an older version of our drivers installed, the setup will automatically perform the update.
NOTE: The latest drivers no longer include support for Windows 98 and ME, but P&E will continue to make our older drivers available. Support for PCI devices (e.g., BDM Lightning) and Parallel port devices has been removed for Windows Vista and later, as well as all 64-bit operating systems.
P&E drivers allow P&E applications to communicate with P&E hardware via the parallel port, PCI bus, Ethernet, Serial, and USB.
This video gives a demonstration of how to load a programming image onto a
CompactFlash card in the expansion port of P&E's Cyclone products.
CompactFlash activation is a powerful feature that lets users expand
the memory and versatility of their Cyclone:
PEmicro’s Cyclone PRO/MAX Stand Alone Programmers offer an impressive array of capabilities such as in-circuit flash programming, stand-alone programming, and as much as 7MB internal non-volatile memory for storing programming images. And now this memory space can be expanded via optional software which enables the Cyclones’ CompactFlash interface. The expanded storage feature simplifies management of Stand-Alone Programming images. This Expert’s Corner explains how to take advantage of the CompactFlash card feature to facilitate the Stand-Alone Programming process.
One of the key features of the Cyclone PRO/MAX Stand-Alone Programmers is the ability to store all necessary programming information - binary data, algorithm information, and programming settings – in the Cyclone’s internal memory, in a format known as the Stand-Alone Programming (SAP) Image. This allows programming operations to be initiated by pushing a single button.
There are currently two methods that can be used to load a SAP image onto a Cyclone. If only a single image is necessary for production, that image can be stored directly on the Cyclone using the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility”.If several images are necessary for production, the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” can first be used to create all the SAP images, and then the “Cyclone Image Manager” can be used to load all the images simultaneously into the cyclone.
These methods are useful for updating small SAP images stored internally, or when the unit is easily accessible from a host PC. However, the procedure becomes a bit more involved if the Cyclone unit is not easily accessible. If the unit is at a different manufacturing plant, for example, or overseas, the user would have to obtain the Cyclone, update the images, and then send it back to its original location. However, with the addition of CompactFlash support this process becomes a matter of simply removing a CompactFlash card with one set of images and plugging in another with the new set, thereby reducing the need for an additional PC and engineering support. This makes it very easy to reconfigure images in the field.
In addition, activation of the Cyclone’s CompactFlash capability provides support for images which are larger than the internal memory storage space. A firmware image of 16 MB intended for programming into a hybrid engine controller, for example, can now easily be stored on a CompactFlash card.
The following sections demonstrate how to use the CompactFlash feature. We will create a SAP image example and then store it on a CompactFlash card in a Cyclone MAX, Rev. B.
First we create a SAP image using the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” and save the SAP image on the PC.Then we transfer the image onto the Cyclone’s CompactFlash card. In the screenshot below, the “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” is configured for Freescale Power Architecture 5534 with a typical programming sequence:
Additional settings for the SAP image may need to be configured depending on the architecture. For the Power Architecture there are three other settings to configure, which are as follows:
1. BDM Shift Frequency: 5, which corresponds to a communication frequency of 2.2 MHz. This clock cannot typically exceed a 1/6th of the processor bus frequency. 2. Reset Delay: 0. The reset delay section allows the user to set a delay before attempting communication. It is generally used if a reset driver exists on the target board which further asserts reset for a longer delay. In this example we will use a reset delay of zero. 3. Image Description: Field_Upgrade_Hybrid_3.49. The field for “Image Description” is used for naming each image that is created.
After verifying that the programming settings are correct, use the “Store Image to Disk” button to save the image on the PC. Then load the image into the CompactFlash card by using the “Cyclone Image Manager Utility”.
In this example, the SAP image is saved on the Desktop:
3. Using CompactFlash – Inserting a CompactFlash Card
Insert the CompactFlash card into the “Flash Expansion Port” on the Cyclone Max Rev. B. It is not necessary to power off the Cyclone Max Rev. B before inserting the CompactFlash Card.
Upon insertion of a blank CompactFlash card the Cyclone prompts the user to format the card for use with the Cyclone device. The user should use only a PEmicro branded CompactFlash card to guarantee proper operation.
4. Using CompactFlash – Storing an Image into CompactFlash
If the Cyclone’s CompactFlash capabilities have been activated, the “Cyclone Image Manager” will display a section that can be used to manage images stored on the CompactFlash. The new Cyclone Image Manager software is sold separately and must be registered before use. Below is a screenshot which shows the “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” section activated:
In this example, the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B is named “Persepolis” and has an IP address of “18.104.22.168” with two SAP images already stored in its internal memory.
The section labeled “Browse & Add Images to Internal Memory” has been updated so that SAP images stored in internal memory will be displayed with a prefix of “IN#:” The prefixes are automatically added after a SAP image is stored. The functionality of the buttons, “Remove All”, “Remove”, and “Add”, remain the same as before. “Remove All” will remove all the images from the internal memory. “Remove” and “Add” are used to configure a list of images to be stored in the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B internal memory. A screenshot of this section appears below:
To store a SAP image on the CompactFlash, click on the “Add” button
under the second section, “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash”.
In this example, the SAP image “Field_Upgrade_Hybrid_349.SAP” created in Section 2 is selected. After selecting the correct SAP image, click open. The SAP image should now be listed in the “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” section. Shown below is a screenshot of “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” before committing changes. The prefix “EX#” is added before the file name to designate it as CompactFlash external memory.
After verifying that the correct SAP image has been added to the list, click on “Commit Changes” to store the image into the CompactFlash card. Shown below is a screenshot of “Browse & Add Images to CompactFlash” after committing changes. Note that the image is now listed on the left.
Several SAP images can also be added at the same time. In the screenshot below, two extra SAP Images have been added to the CompactFlash card.
Now that the SAP images have been added to the Cyclone’s CompactFlash card, we can use LCD screen and interface buttons on the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B to select which image to use for stand-alone programming. The next section discusses the steps needed for selecting a SAP image.
If you wish you may watch this brief video demonstrating how to load a programming image onto the CompactFlash.
5. Using CompactFlash – Selecting an Image on the LCD screen
After storing the SAP images into the internal memory and CompactFlash, the status window displayed on the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B appears as below:
To change the selected SAP image press the “Menu/Select” button, which brings up the main menu:
Then press the “Menu/Select” button again when “Select SAP Image” is highlighted.
This will bring up a list of available SAP images. As mentioned previously, the prefix “IN#:” indicates that an Image is stored in internal memory and the prefix “EX#:” identifies that an Image that is stored in CompactFlash. Scroll until the desired image is highlighted and then press “Select”.
Once the SAP image is selected, its name will be displayed in the status window:
For added data security, information can only be written to the CompactFlash through the Cyclone MAX, Rev. B and Cyclone PRO, Rev. C, and datasets cannot be extracted from the CompactFlash once they have been written.
With the new CompactFlash card feature, PEmicro’s Cyclone PRO and Cyclone MAX Stand-Alone Programmers are no longer constrained by a limit of eight SAP images in the internal memory. Furthermore, updating a SAP image at an off-site production facility or on the field is now as easy as sending a CompactFlash with the new SAP Image. Archiving each new version of an image becomes easier by storing each new image on a separate CompactFlash Card.
P&E engineer Edison Tam demonstrates how to program
Freescale's QE128 with P&E's Cyclone PRO stand-alone automated
programmer, and gives an overview of the development and production
capabilities of the Cyclone PRO. To learn more, please visit the Cyclone PRO product page:
Watertown, MA - P&E Microcomputer Systems has expanded its line of UNIT Library Interface Routines by adding a new version that supports Freescale's RS08 microcontroller family. P&E's UNIT Libraries allow the user to create custom Windows applications that can fully control an RS08 processor using either P&E's Cyclone PRO (Rev. C) or USB-ML-12 (Rev. C) interfaces. It also supports P&E's DEMO9RS08LA8, DEMO9RS08LE4, and DEMO9RS08KB12 development boards, available through Freescale.
The UNIT libraries are frequently used to build custom production line testers. The libraries allow applications to peek and poke memory, peripherals, and other resources of the processor by using P&E interfaces to access the debug port. With these abilities, the application can perform tests of the target hardware, calculate target calibration data, or simply control the target using debug mode.
More information about P&E's UNIT Interface Library Routines for the RS08 can be found at P&E's website.
P&E has updated its Cyclone PRO Image Creation Utility to provide a way for users to set a custom trim frequency for HCS08, RS08, and CFV1 devices that have an internal reference clock. To use this feature, the user must first select a programming algorithm, because not all devices have the same maximum and minimum internal reference clock frequencies.
Once the programming algorithm has been selected, the utility will determine the allowed frequency range from which the user can choose. The user also has the option of enabling or disabling this feature. When it is enabled, the user can input a desired frequency. If the user does not enable this feature and input a frequency, or if this feature is disabled, the utility will simply select the default trim frequency as specified in the device reference manual.
Please note that this feature is only effective if the "PT ; Program Trim" command is included in the programming sequence. This custom trim feature in the updated Cyclone PRO Image Creation Utility is similar to the one available in CodeWarrior for Microcontrollers (RS08/HC(S)08/ColdFire V1).
To download the latest updates, please visit our Cyclone PRO product page.
Did you know that P&E offers full chip simulation for all 8-bit Freescale devices? This powerful tool allows you to jump start device evaluation and firmware development because you can start writing code without having access to the actual device. All aspects of 8-bit devices from the CPU to the external I/O can be analyzed in a full-chip simulator.
Because of the importance that external I/O plays in development of any embedded system, P&E's full chip simulator gives the user access to all onboard modules via a combination of input/output GUIs and commands. The user can simulate sending and receiving data to and from modules such as SCI, SPI, IIC, ADC and PGA. At the same time the user can also simulate analog inputs on bi-directional I/O ports, which can be used to trigger keyboard interrupt events if the KBI module is properly configured. Availability of the modules mentioned above depends the actual device.
Currently, all P&E full chip simulators are available through fully licensed and evaluation versions of Freescale Codewarrior IDE. However, P&E plans to release a stand-alone product which will include simulation for 8-bit Freescale devices.
Below is a code snippet that can be used to perform an SCI transmission. Once the transmission takes place, it can be observed in the SCI output buffer window:
PEmicro’s PROG programming software will sometimes prompt the user to enter a “Base Address”. In this article, we discuss what the base address is and why it exists.
On most 8-bit and 16-bit processors, the internal flash/eeprom is located at fixed address locations. If this is the case, the associated programming algorithm will NOT prompt the user for a base address, since the address is fixed and already known.
On 32-bit processors and any systems using external flash, the address of the flash may be configured to reside anywhere within the processor’s address space. The developer will decide on an appropriate memory map early in the design process.
For these situations where the flash can be relocated, the PROG software will always move the flash so that it begins at address 0. However, the developer may not have an object file that matches this new memory mapping. To account for this, the “Base Address” (specified by the user) is subtracted from all addresses in the object file prior to programming.
Below is an example of how the developer’s memory map may differ from the one in PROG. Although the external flash is located at different addresses, it refers to the same physical memory. Here, the user would specify a base address of FFC00000.
The base address should always be the starting address of flash in the developer’s memory map, and not the “first” address where data exists (although in most cases they are the same!)
Today's tip concerns P&E's Cyclone automated programmers. With the release of the Cyclone Automated Control Package,
users have been inquiring if there is a way to automate the creation of stand-alone
images. Fortunately, with the standard Cyclone
PRO/MAX installations, users already have command-line executables that
can accomplish this task.
For each architecture there is a corresponding CSAPXXXX.EXE application that can be used to create a stand-alone image file. For example, to create an image for the Coldfire V2/V3/V4 devices, the user would use CSAPBDMCFZ.EXE. For this blog, we will demonstrate how to create a stand-alone image for a 9S08QE128 device by using CSAPHCS08Z.EXE.
Begin by creating a stand-alone configuration file. You can create a configuration file by configuring the programming sequence in the Cyclone Image Creation Utility and then saving it thorugh File ->Save Cyclone Configuration. You can also create a configuration file by using a text editor, typing in the commands, and saving it as a .CFG file. A typical configuration file might use the following sequence:
CM C:pemicrocyclone_proAlgorithmsHCS089S08QE128.S8P SS C: esthcs089S08QE128.S19 EM ;Erase Module BM ;Blank Check Module PT ;Program Trim PM ;Program Module VM ;Verify Module VC ;Verify Checksum
In this example, we will save the .CFG file as "9S08QE128.CFG" in c:. With the configuration file created, we can now create a stand-alone image or .SAP file by using the command prompt. In the command prompt, we can invoke the configuration script file as follows:
The first parameter, "c:9S08QE128.cfg", specifies the location of the input configuration file.
The second parameter, imagefile "c:9s08qe128.sap", specifies the name and output location of the .SAP file.
The last parameter, imagecontent "9S08QE128_1_26_2009", specifies the image description.
You can use the '?' character option to cause the utility to wait and
display the result of the configuration in the CSAP window. You can also use the '!' character option to cause the utility to wat and display the result only if the file
failed to generate.
After invoking the configuration script in the command prompt, the file 9S08qe128.sap is generated in the C: directory. The 9s08qe128.sap file can now be loaded into the Cyclone PRO/MAX by using the Cyclone Automated Control Package or the Cyclone Manage Images Utility.
P&E's Cyclone PRO makes it very simple to program both the Flash
and EEPROM on your HC(S)12(X) device. There is a
unique algorithm for each device and the type of memory, so the first
step is to determine the correct algorithm for your setup. A list of
all of our algorithms is located here. If you need help indentifying the correct algorithm, please refer to our previous post, Choosing The Right Programming Algorithm.
The following is a demonstration of how to program the 9S12DP256B microcontroller with P&E's Cyclone PRO, first in Interactive and then in Stand-Alone mode.
The 9S12DP256B has 4KB of EEPROM and 256KB (4 blocks of 64KB) Flash, so the algorithm files that you are need are:
You can place your code for EEPROM and Flash in seperate S-Record files or combine it into one. The P&E programming software will ignore any addresses in the S-Record that are out of memory range. Note that Freescale's Codewarrior Develoopment Kit automatically
outputs an S-Record file and PHY file that contain both the Flash and
EEPROM code. You can load the PHY file directly with either algorithm
When using the Cyclone PRO in Interactive Mode, open up the CyclonePro_PROG12Z Flash programming software and connect to the target board.
1. Load Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x2k_4k_EEPROM.12P with the "CM" command. 2. Specify S-record that you want to program with the "SS" command. 3. Erase the EEPROM with the "EM" command.4. Program the EEPROM with the "PM" command5. Verify the EEPROM with the "VM" command 6. Load Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x128k_256k_Linear_16k_page.12P with the "CM" command 7. Erase the Flash with the "EM" command.8. Program the Flash with the "PM" command9. Verify the Flash with the "VM" command
If you're using the Cyclone in Stand-Alone mode you'll need to configure the following programming sequence in the Cyclone PRO Image Creation Utility. If you don't have this utility, you can download the software here.
CM Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x2k_4k_EEPROM.12P SS DP256.PHY EMPMVMCM Freescale_9S12DP256B_1x16x128k_256k_Linear_16k_page.12PEMPMVM
Did you know that the Freescale Codewarrior IDE includes an
option that allows you to program flash with more flexibility? This option is
called “Expert Mode."
Expert Mode provides a set of general interface
functions which are used to control the erasing, verifying, programming and
viewing of modules to be programmed and provides the flexibility of choosing
your own flash programming algorithm and program/erase ranges in your module
within the IDE.
To access this feature, follow these steps:
Start the Freescale CodeWarrior IDE
Create your project or use an existing one.
the connection type is set to “P&E Multilink/Cyclone Pro” and your target
Start the Debug session and interface with the
Inside the real-time debugger, navigate to
“Start Expert Mode Programmer…” and select this option.
This will allow you to access features that are normally available to you
in P&E's PROG flash programming software. This option is available in CodeWarrior 6.2 for the HCS08
and RS08 architecture and allows the Cyclone PRO to be used for interactive programming.
To find full documentation of our software for your device,
PEmicro’s product line of Cyclone stand-alone
provides a fast, robust, and automated solution for production-scale
programming of microprocessors. However, production facilities may
even higher level of automation than the single-button touch capability
offered by the Cyclone. PEmicro offers several means of automating
control, including a command-line executable, UDP/Serial
communications, or the .DLL included in PEmicro's new Cyclone Automated
Control Software Package. In this article, we discuss automated control
using the automated control package and the unprecedented level of
power and flexibility that
1.) Introduction – Controlling a Cyclone through the PC
PEmicro’s new Cyclone Automated Control Package provides
the developer with a dynamic link library (DLL) and supporting documentation to
allow custom software applications to directly control the Cyclone.
By storing the binary data information, algorithm
information, and settings directly into the FLASH memory of the Cyclone,
programming operations can be initiated by the simple push of a button.
However, the DLL enables us to use the PC to issue a command to the Cyclone to
start the same programming sequence!
The use of a PC to control the Cyclone enhances the
functionality of the stand-alone programming operations, but also introduces
new capabilities that were not available previously. In the following sections,
we explore the features of the Cyclone Automated Control Package and present
practical examples of how to use it in your own production line.
2.) Setup – Image Creation
The first step is always to create the actual stand-alone
images that will be stored onto the Cyclone. These images contain the algorithm
needed to program FLASH / EEPROM, the actual binary data to be programmed, the
sequence of programming operations, and many user-specified Cyclone settings.
PEmicro’s “Cyclone Image Creation Utility” allows the user to properly
configure the stand-alone images.
Above is a screenshot of the dialog in the Cyclone Image
Creation Utility which allows the user to configure the stand-alone image. The
field on the right shows the programming steps and also the order in which
these steps execute.
1.)First, we select the appropriate algorithm for our
processor. In this example, we are using the Freescale
2.)Next, we specify the target object file that represents
the binary data to be programmed into the processor’s FLASH memory. Here, we are
using a Motorola S-record file.
3.)Once the algorithm and the target object file are
specified, we are ready to begin programming. Typically, the procedure is to
erase the device to make sure it’s blank, program the target, and verify that
the contents were written correctly.
In addition to the programming sequence, there are also
settings for the Cyclone that we can configure. In the above screenshot, we are
using the Cyclone PRO’s power relays to provide the appropriate voltage to power
up our processor. This way, we do not need a separate power supply for our
target board, simplifying our production line.
Finally, we specify the Image Description so that we can
easily identify the image later on. By using the “Store Image to Disk” option,
we are able to save this image and its configuration as a .SAP file for future
3.) Using the DLL – Simple Example
The above code example shows the most basic operation that
is supported by the Cyclone Automated Control Package. Below are the steps we have
Step 1: Contact the desired Cyclone by specifying its
IP address. The handle of the Cyclone is returned, and is used to identify the
Cyclone in all subsequent function calls.
Step 2: Send a command to the Cyclone to begin the
programming operations specified in image #1. These operations were specified
during the image creation process.
Step 3: Wait for the Cyclone to complete the
programming operations before proceeding.
Step 4: Check to see if any errors occurred during
programming and provide a message to the user.
Step 5: Terminate the current session with the
4.) Using the DLL – More Advanced Operations
Programming a serial number
Note: The following are placeholder functions used to
simplify the example, and are not provided by the automated control package:
The above example code is an event handler written for a
visual MFC application, which is executed each time a button is pressed by the
user. Here, we again instruct the Cyclone to perform the stand-alone
programming operations of the image stored on the Cyclone. Afterwards, we
program a dynamic 2-byte serial number into address 0x100 of the target
processor. The serial number is then incremented and written back to a file for
Although there are many different ways to program a serial
number without needing to use the automated control package at all, this code example can easily be
modified to program dynamic data that is not sequential. For example, if we
wish to program the current date or a lot number, using the automated control package and writing
your own custom application is by far the easiest and most automated way to
accomplish this task.
Automatically update image stored on the Cyclone
This is a very simple example of how to ensure that the
image stored on a Cyclone is always up to date. A comparison is performed
between the image which currently resides on the Cyclone and an image file at a
specified location on the host PC. If there is a mismatch, then we update the
image. Afterwards, we proceed with the normal programming operations as seen in
the previous examples.
5.) Can I Control Multiple Cyclones?
Up until now, we have discussed some uses of the
Cyclone Automated Control Package with a single Cyclone unit. Since the host PC only
sends minimal control information to control each Cyclone, a single PC is
actually capable of controlling many Cyclone units simultaneously.
Here, we begin programming operations on 3 separate Cyclone
units and wait for their completion before proceeding. In essence, we are
programming 3 separate devices in parallel. This can be easily extended to 10,
100, or even 1000 Cyclone units controlled in parallel from a single host PC!
6.) More Examples
Here are a few more real world examples:
·Quality Control : automatically
record statistics on the number of devices that fail during programming.
·You’re a developer and just completed the
firmware development for a brand new product. Now you need to get your
production facility up to speed, but they are halfway across the country.
Streamline this process by writing a simple application that will add a new
image to the Cyclone. Send this along with the new stand-alone image SAP file
and you’re done.
·You use multiple Cyclone units for programming
your devices in parallel. Each Cyclone has 4 different images, one for each of
your 4 different products. Write an application that allows the user to
automatically select the correct image for the current production run.
Whether you are performing small production runs in-house or
programming a large number of chips in a high-volume facility, PEmicro’s
Cyclone product family provides a powerful, yet affordable, solution. With the
advanced parallel programming, image management, and error tracking features
provided by PEmicro’s new Cyclone Automated Control Package, you now have the power to
completely automate your production programming process like never before.
Did you ever wonder how to power cycle your device to force it into
Background Debug Mode? Are you trying to eliminate an external
power supply from your manufacturing setup? You can accomplish either task by using
a Cyclone PRO. Using the Cyclone PRO's internal power generation mechanism, you can control power for any HC08/HCS08/RS08/HC(S)12 device.
In fact, controlling the power through a Cyclone PRO is crucial for
HCS08/RS08 device applications which may not have a dedicated RESET
pin. This is because power cycling the device is necessary in order to fully automate the
FLASH programming procedure.
To configure a Cyclone PRO to provide power to pin 6 of the BDM
header, set power jumpers 2, 3 and 4 on the side of the Cyclone unit. To
provide power to pin 15 of the 16-pin MON08 header,
set power jumpers 1, 2 and 3. Once the power jumpers are set,
select "Provide Power to Target" from the Connection Assistant and/or
Cyclone Image Creation Utility and the Cyclone PRO will take care of
the rest. You can choose between 5V, 3V and 2V levels.
Cyclone PRO is also able to toggle power for most high-power/high-voltage devices. The internal electromechanical relays can handle power supplies with a maximum switched current of 1A and a maximum switched
voltage of up to 30VDC. In order to automate power cycling with an
external power supply, insert it into the Cyclone's "Target Power In" jack. Use the power cord that's included in the Cyclone PRO kit to
connect the output of the Cyclone's "Target Power Out" jack to the power input of your
board. Then be sure to set power jumper 5 on the side of the Cyclone unit, leaving jumpers 1, 2, 3 and 4
P&E offers an easy and reliable way to control a Cyclone PRO via the built-in RS232
protocol. If you would like to follow along with our example, please pre-program your Cyclone PRO with a stand-alone image and
configure your RS232 host device to operate at an 115200 baud rate, 8 data bits,
no parity and 1 stop bit mode. You are now ready to enjoy the flexibility
of controlling your Cyclone PRO by sending it a pre-defined set of byte strings. These commands cover
full range of Cyclone PRO functionality, beginning with Executing All Commands
of an Image (Same as Pressing the "Start" button) and ending with
Dynamically Programming Data to Target.
In order to ensure that a given command reaches the Cyclone PRO without
getting corrupted, each command is concluded by a CRC8 byte. Below is the
command structure that should be followed every time the RS232 command
is sent: [LENGTH] [COMMAND TYPE] [COMMAND ID] [PARAMETERS] [CRC8]. The user
should calculate CRC8 and append it to all commands that are sent from a
host system to a Cyclone PRO.
Let's go through a step-by-step example of CRC8 calculation for Execute All command:
The command consists of 4 bytes that include the CRC of $88: $03 $18 $11 $88.
Did you know you can safeguard data while erasing your Flash/EEPROM module during programming? PEmicro has added a “preserve range” function that can be used in a programming algorithm to preserve memory ranges. The function looks at the range to be preserved, saves it, and restores it after the Flash/EEPROM has been erased. The user can easily preserve code segments stored in flash with a couple of modifications to the header of the programming algorithm.
A flash programming algorithm is a text file which describes how a particular flash block is to be programmed. The algorithm contains a configuration section as well as some s-record data which implements the programming process. User's commonly will modify the configuration section to change the behavior of the programming algorithm, such as to add ranges of data to preserve.
Flash algorithms describe flash blocks as having either a fixed address (common for internal flash on a microcontroller) or a variable address (common for flash chips external to a microprocessor). Algorithms which do not have a fixed address for the flash will prompt the user for the base address of the flash at the time of programming. In either case, the algorithm can be used to specify ranges of flash to preserve relative to the start of the flash block.
For an algorithm with a fixed address for the flash block, the following line will indicate the flash block location:
NO_BASE_ADDRESS=NNNNNNNN/ ; NNNNNNNN is a Hexadecimal value indicating the start of flash
Do not modify the NO_BASE_ADDRESS line! You are simply going to add some lines after it which indicate that you wish to preserve certain ranges relative to the base address. The configuration line(s) you should add directly after the NO_BASE_ADDRESS line should have the following format (very strictly formatted - no spaces allowed and include all forward slashes):
PRESERVE_RANGE=SSSSSSSS/EEEEEEEE/ ; SSSSSSSS is the starting offset, EEEEEEEE is ending offset
Adding this line would preserve the following memory range : NNNNNNNN+SSSSSSSS to NNNNNNNN+EEEEEEEE.
If there was an algorithm which was designed to program a flash block with address range $4000-$FFFF, you would see the following configuration in the flash algorithm:
NO_BASE_ADDRESS=00004000/ ;Fixed at $4000 ADDR_RANGE=00000000/0000BFFF/00/FFFFFFC0/FFFFFE00/ ; $4000-$FFFF
Do not modify these lines! If you wanted to preserve a certain memory range, you would specify it after the line with the NO_BASE_ADDRESS command (which sets the base address) and before the lines with ADDR_RANGE. If you wanted to preserve the memory from address $F000-$F001, you would add the bolded line as follows:
Note that the preserve_range command requires the offset from the base address of your memory. If you add $4000 to $B000 and $B001, you have $F000 and $F001.
In addition, this functionality does not limit the user to preserving only 1 range or one address. The function can be called several times in the algorithm if several ranges and/or addresses need to be preserved, or if the Flash/EEPROM is segmented into several fields or extended into pages.
For the flash block above (from $4000 to $FFFF), if the user wished to preserve addresses $5001, $5006 and ranges $CCAA-$CCBB and $D123-$DFFF, the following segment would be added to the algorithm:
It is also possible to preserve several different segments across different pages of Flash/EEPROM. The user should know how to access each page of memory logically in the software. Let's look at the HCS08 AC128. The paged Flash memory can be accessed with the following ranges. This will typcially be described in the configuration section of the programming algorithm.
$08000-$0BFFF --> Page 0 $18000-$1BFFF --> Page 1 $28000-$2BFFF --> Page 2 $38000-$3BFFF --> Page 3 etc. If the user wanted to preserve memory on page 0 from $08000-$08005 and on page 3 from $38000-$38005, he would add the following commands :
Note again that the offset $20F0 is added to the parameters of the command to calculate the correct paged memory ranges to preserve. Add $20F0 to $5F10 to get $08000 and add $20F0 to $35F10 to get $38000.
The PROG software will report a checksum error and warn that the algorithm has been modified. This error can be ignored. If you wish to remove the warning, please use our command-line ADDCRC utility to update the checksum.
The Blank Check command will now fail because of the preserved data. Also note that the Verify Module command will ignore the addresses that are preserved when comparing memory against an S-record.
Any information which follows a semicolon (;) on a configuration line is a comment. PEmicro can provide more a detailed specification of flash algorithm construction upon request.
For time-sensitive HCS08/RS08 applications the developer often needs to trim the internal reference clock in order to generate a desired bus frequency. P&E's HCS08 and RS08 Flash Programmers provide a command called “Program Trim” that allows developers to program a pre-calculated value to the non-volatile flash locations that are reserved for storing ICSTRM and ICSSC registers. These can then be loaded at run-time.
Here’s a demonstration of how the “Program Trim” command can be used to generate a bus frequency of 8 MHz on a 9S08QE128 microcontroller. For the 9S08QE128, the “Program Trim” command will generate a value that will trim the Internal Reference Clock to 31.25 KHz with an accuracy of up to +/- 0.2%. The command will then program the generated value to 0xFFAE and 0xFFAF. We will be working with an assembly file that configures the Internal Clock Source module and toggle Port A every 20 CPU cycles.
Configuration source file:
ROMSTART equ $2080
SOPT1 equ $1802
ICSC2 equ $0039
ICSTRM equ $003A
ICSSC equ $003B
PTAD equ $0000
PTADD equ $0001
sta SOPT1 ; Disable watchdog
sta ICSTRM ; Load TRIM bits from Flash and store it into ICSTRM
ora $FFAE ; Load FTRIM bit from flash and store it into ICSSC
and #$3F ; Set BDIV to Divide DCOOUT by 1
sta ICSC2 ; FLL factor= 512, therefore 31.25Khz*512/1=16 MHz=DCOOUT
; 16MHz/2=8MHz=Bus Frequency
mov #$ff,PTADD ; Set all PTAD pins as outputs
mov #$ff,PTAD ; Set all PTA outputs as high
mov #$00,PTAD ; 4 cycles
mov #$ff,PTAD ; 4 cycles
jmp loop ; 4 cycles
dw Main ;Reset Vector
After saving the above source file section as "9S08QE128_Example.asm" and assembling it, we can use PROGHCS08 to program the generated 9S08QE128_Example.s19 file into flash. The programming sequence outlined below will program our generated .S19 and the pre-calculated trim value.
CM ; Choose module 9S08QE128.S8P SS ; Specify our object file 9S08QE128_Example.S19 EM ; Erase module BM ; Blank check module PM ; Program module VM ; Verify module PT ; Program Trim Value
On a power-on reset, our 9S08QE128 target will disable the watchdog, load trim values from flash and store them into their corresponding ICS registers, set the bus frequency divider to 1, and toggle PTA pins every 20 cycles. With a bus frequency of 8MHz, if we were to put a scope on any of the PTA pins, we would expect to observe a signal with a 400 KHz frequency +/-0.2% accuracy.
P&E's Cyclone programmers are sophisticated and flexible tools designed for in-circuit flash programming. Field service updates, an important part of a field system, often occur in places where there is no access to a PC or power outlet. However, P&E's Cyclones are lightweight, compact programmers that have been designed to operate in stand-alone mode – i.e. they can be loaded with a programming image, detached from the PC, and then be controlled via the LCD menu and control buttons. This makes it simple to update the firmware of a field system, for example. In the field, the Cyclone unit may be powered by using a Cyclone_PowerPack, which is a lightweight and compact lithium ion battery. The combination of the Cyclone programmer and the battery pack creates a fully operational field programming setup that is lightweight, compact, and extremely portable.
All that is required for a field update is to connect the battery-powered, pre-programmed Cyclone to the target. Flash programming occurs directly from the Cyclone image to the target by a simple touch of the Start button. Once initiated, programming launches and the on-board LCD displays the current state of the programming process. The final result, which is displayed on the LCD screen and with highly visible LEDs, clearly indicates a successful programming result.
Did you know that P&E provides simulation for nearly the whole array of Freescale 8-bit microcontrollers (RS08/HCS08/HC08)? Simulation is inexpensive and fast, and allows for a highly detailed look at the functionality of the simulated device. P&E Simulations include trace capabilities and are cycle-accurate (cycle accuracy allows for a low level, cycle-by-cycle analysis of the timing and general functionality of your code). Furthermore, simulation allows the seamless loading of code to the
entire memory array of the processor, without the cumbersome flash
burning that accompanies hardware development -- and byte by byte modification of the memory is allowed at any time.
In addition to initial development, simulation can serve as a highly effective means of product evaluation. Evaluation of various devices via simulators can be relatively painless and inexpensive when compared to evaluating those same devices using actual hardware. In addition, our simulations are often published before the silicon is widely available, so simulation is also an excellent tool to help you stay on the cutting edge.
Currently, P&E Simulations are available within the Codewarrior toolsuite. However, P&E will soon be releasing the Simulation Toolkit, which will include all simulations in one convenient package. Stay tuned to the P&E Newsflash for more updates on the release of this product.
When it comes to production programming, a lot of times one or more serial numbers are required.
P&E has developed a utility called SERIALIZE, which allows the generation of a .SER serial number description file. This graphical utility
sets up a serial number which will increment according to the parameters set by
For P&E interactive programmers (PROGx software), the .SER files are stored on the PC and updated every time a serial number is programmed
to the target.
For Cyclone stand-alone operations, a
similar mechanism has been implemented, except that the serial number
structure is stored in the Cyclone's non-volatile internal FLASH memory. The .SER
file is used to obtain the initial serial number. Below we'll describe how a user
can take advantage of this feature in stand alone operations.
that a user only needs one serial number for his product, the following
sequence of operations can be specified when he creates the SAP image:
CM Corresponding programming algorithm for his product
SS Corresponding object file for his product
CS Corresponding .SER file for his product created using the Serialize utility
storing the image on the Cyclone, a user can simply press the "START"
button and watch the target be programmed with the serial number
specified in the .SER file. Another press of the "START" button will
program the target with the next serial number.
modules and multiple serial numbers can co-exist in one SAP image. The
following are example scripts of two programming algorithms and
three serial numbers:
CM Programming algorithm 1
SS Object file 1
CS .SER file 1
CM Programming algorithm 2
SS Object file 2
CS .SER file 2
CS .SER file 3
Once the SAP image is stored in a Cyclone, pressing the "START"
button will automatically carry out all the operations listed above in
sequence. Memory module 1 will contain the serial number specified
in the first .SER file. Memory module 2 will contain the serial
number specified in the second .SER file, and the serial number
specified by the third .SER file. Another press of the "START" button
will automatically program the next serial numbers in the target.
This serialize mechanism may even be used when a user
wants to program some static data to different locations without using
the "PB" or "PW" commands - the user can simply create a .SER file with all constants.
Please refer to this post for more information on the Serialization utility.
P&E offers a set of In-Circuit Debuggers that are packed with powerful scripting features. Whether you are stepping through a couple of lines of assembly code or debugging a C-level source, P&E's toolset can help you get the job done. P&E's In-Circuit Debuggers are designed with repeatable test and debugging procedures in mind. Therefore, the user can completely automate software tests by creating a macro script and saving the outcome in a log file. As a result, the user can avoid hours of repeatedly setting up software and firmware tests.
Here's a small demonstration of how the built in macro commands can be used to create and perform a repeatable firmware test on a 9S08AW60 processor. We'll be working with a simple assembly loop that's designed to toggle Port A every 20 CPU cycles. Please note that while the example below will be based on ICDHCS08 debugger, the same set of macro commands is present in all P&E debuggers. For a complete set of built-in macro features, please refer to the ICD COMMANDS section in the corresponding ICDxx.hlp file.
The macro outlined below will load our loop_example.s19 and .map files. At the same time it will set the program counter, set the breakpoints, and initialize variables. As the code executes, it will also capture the contents of the desired registers as well as the contents of all on-screen windows. All information will in turn be stored in a log file for later comparison and analysis:
; creates log file
; load an .s19 with a map file
; set program counter to point to the beginning of the
; add a variable to a variable window
; add a variable to a variable window
; run through initialization part of the code to the loop
; dump the contents of registers $00 to $01 into the log
; set a breakpoint at the beginning of the loop
; run the code until it hits a breakpoint
; captures the current data in all open windows and stores
; them in a log file.
; close log file
To execute the above macro, enter “macro” in the command line (located on the bottom of the ICD status window). Browse to the location where your macro is saved and open the file. Please note that any built-in commands can also be executed individually. This gives the user the opportunity to perform a step-by-step test of the macro prior to starting the automated debugging procedure.
, MA— P&E Microcomputer Systems continues its commitment to
programming automation and efficiency by announcing the release of an
Automated Control Software Development Kit (SDK) for the Cyclone family
SDK features a dynamic link library (DLL) and supporting documentation
which allow the user to create custom software applications that
directly control P&E’s Cyclone PRO and MAX units. It also enables
users to control multiple Cyclones with a single PC, modify stored
images, manage multiple images, and program non-sequential dynamic data
such as serial numbers.
Cyclone Automated Control SDK is available in Professional and
Enterprise versions to suit both small and large production scales. A
Basic version with limited features is available for download at no
More information is available on the P&E website on this link.
- P&E Microcomputer Systems now offers a rechargeable Power Pack
for use with the Cyclone PRO and Cyclone MAX stand-alone programmers.
When powered by a lithium ion long-runtime battery, a Cyclone unit is
the perfect solution for field firmware updates that require portable,
stand-alone programming. The Cyclone and PowerPack are lightweight,
compact, and extremely portable.
- P&E Microcomputer Systems announces the release of the DEMOJM
development board, available through Freescale. The DEMOJM is a low-cost
development system that supports Freescale MC9S08JM60 and MCF51JM128
64LQFP microcontrollers. It consists of a DEMOJM Base Board, a DC9S08JM60
Daughter Card and a DC51JM128 Daughter Card. P&E’s Embedded Multilink
circuitry on the DEMOJM board allows the processor connected to the
DEMOJM to be powered, debugged, and programmed via USB from a PC.
- P&E Microcomputer Systems announces the release of the DEMOQE128
development board, a low-cost development system designed for demonstrating,
evaluating, and debugging the Freescale MC9S08QE128 and MCF51QE128 microcontrollers.
P&E’s Multilink circuitry is embedded onto the DEMOQE128 board
so that it can be powered, programmed, and debugged via USB from the
PC. An optional BDM port is provided to allow use of an external BDM
interface such as P&E’s Cyclone PRO automated programmer or USB
P&E has developed Linux-supported versions of many of our UNIT Library Interface Routines.
For several years, P&E Microcomputer Systems has offered the UNIT
SDK in order to allow users of P&E's hardware to create custom
applications for testing and other designs. With the addition of Linux
support for many of the UNIT products, P&E continues to expand the
range of users who can take advantage of these powerful tools.
UNIT Library Interface Routines for Linux are available for:
Power PC Nexus
For more information on UNIT software for Linux or Windows, please visit P&E's website.
Massachusetts - P&E has released a suite of development tools for
Freescale's 68RS08 family of microcontrollers. With this launch,
P&E now offers products to take an RS08 project from development to
production, including the DEVRS08KA2 low-cost development board and
P&E's popular Cyclone PRO.
addition to the DEVRS08KA2 development board, P&E has also launched
the ICDRS08 In-Circuit Debugger, PROG08 Flash/EEPROM Programmer,
WinIDERS08 Development Envirionment, and a package which combines the
USB-ML-12E USB Multilink BDM Interface with the RS08 debugger,
programmer, and IDE. The package also includes an RS08 simulator and
RS08 family of microcontrollers are reduced-core versions of the S08
architecture, designed with a focus on very small and highly portable
Boston, Massachusetts— P&E Microcomputer
Systems announced the availability of two new USB Multilink interface
cables. The first is the USB-ML-PPCNEXUS, a JTAG/BDM interface for
Freescale MPC55xx devices. The second is the USB-ML-16/32, a BDM
interface for Freescale 68HC16/683xx devices. Both new interfaces
connect from the USB port of a Windows-based PC to the target. P&E
offers these new USB Multilink interfaces individually, or packaged
with software (debugger, programmer, IDE) as part of a development kit.
Boston, Massachusetts - P&E
Microcomputer Systems has expanded its offering of 68HC908 development
kits, with the addition of five new kits. Each new kit features a
development board with one of Freescale's 68HC908EY16, -GR8, -GZ60,
-SR12, or -QY4 processors, and a standard MON08 header. The kits also
include a USB-to-target MON08 interface (USB-ML-MON08) and P&E's
PKG08SZ software package.
also announced plans to offer development boards and kits featuring the
-AP64, -GT16, -KX8, -MR8, -QC16 in the near future.
PEmicro. proudly annouces the release of a wide
range of development boards and kits for the M68HC908. PEmicro is now
offering affordably priced development boards for the M68HC908AB32,
-GP32, -GZ16, -JL8, -MR32, and -QY4. These boards are available
individually or as a set of all six. In addition, PEmicro is bundling
the boards with the MON08 Multilink, USB-ML-MON08, or Cyclone PRO
interfaces, providing the user with powerful yet inexpensive
development solutions right out of the box.
The development boards feature:
Resident MC68HC908 Processor (AB32, GP32, GZ16, JL8, MR32, and QY4)
MON08 Debug header to allow debug and programming from the Cyclone Pro, MON08 Multilink, or USB MON08 Multilink
access to all processor pins, including port pins needed for Monitor
Mode entry shortly after reset (wire wrap headers included)
PEmicro's asm/debug/programming software available at no-cost for download
Clock source may be from a PEmicro interface cable, on-board crystal (except QY4), or available to be driven by the user
Power may be provided by a PEmicro interface cable or by the user
Small size perfect for embedding into prototyping areas
Board dimensions: 2.3" x 2.125"
PEmicro also offers the boards as part of development kits, which include one of the following MON08 interfaces:
PRO - includes USB, ethernet, & serial MON08/BDM communications,
also functions as standalone programmer. PEmicro recommends the Cyclone
PRO interface for development or production programming.